Septic 101

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Septic 101:

On-Site Sewage Treatment - is necessary when you operate outside the P.O.T.W. (Publicly Operated Treatment Works).

This means that you need to treat your own sewage. In order to understand how to do this, one needs to understand how a septic system generally works.

There are only two types of Septic Systems - Conventional and Unconventional.

The Conventional Septic System:

This system has 3 Main Sections that are installed and technically a 4th (the soil which cleans the effluent before it reaches the water table).

The First Section (1) is the Main Line, which transports the sewage from the home to the Septic Tank.

The Second Section (2) is the Septic Tank:

The Septic Tank's job is to separate the solids from the liquids. Once separated, the tank holds the solids for digestion and periodic removal.

Septic tanks are called "septic" because they work in an anaerobic state.

How this separation takes place: When the sewage enters the septic tank, it enters via the inlet or "front" baffle T.

The solids then either fall to the bottom or float on top while the wastewater (septic effluent) enters the Outlet or "Rear" Baffle T.

The septic wastewater (effluent) then drains or flows into the Third Section (3) - the Field Lines and Absorption Field. Conventional field lines are little more than a trench with gravel to allow the water to disperse and be absorbed by the soil.

Field Line Problems - can develop due to the forming of an excessive bio-mat.  The bio-mat forms in the field lines where the anaerobic water makes contact with the aerobic soil.

The majority of field line problems occur due to the bio-mat excess and the bio-mat's overgrowth can be easily prevented by adding  Aerobic Treatment to your septic system.  See Septic Remediation as one possible solution.

Field Line Repair and Restoration Example with Photos

Most other Conventional Septic System problems can be solved by professional servicing of the system.

For example, Septic Pump Package Specials can take care of this problem for you and get your system working properly.

The Un-Conventional Septic System

The Aerobic Treatment Unit adds air to the anaerobic effluent - turning the effluent aerobic so that it is more easily absorbed into the soil.  This also prevents the forming of  the bio-mat, which is the cause of most field line problems. 

Chambers Systems - The new technology of "chambers" replaces conventional field lines. Chambers allow bottom and side-wall exposure without the hindrance of aggregate fill. "Click here" for pictures of a chamber system.

Mound Systems - are used when you need your field lines above ground in order to keep the proper distance from the water table. These lines are generally laid on top of the ground and covered with soil and appropriate landscaping. See Geo Textile Sand Filters.

Peat Moss Systems - in place of conventional field lines, Peat Moss, contained in containers above or below ground, can be used to filter and disperse the effluent naturally.

Please Note: All of the above systems require gravity.

Drip-Emitter Systems The Drip-Emitter System is used when the conventional gravity system cannot be used due to poor absorption rates, proximity to subsurface restrictive layers or high water tables.

These systems force the waste water into the soil using pressure!

The Perc-Rite System  For more information, please contact us today.

This is a residential solution that combined a drip emitter system and a Norweco Singulair.

Conventional System - Common Septic Problems and Solutions

"Tips and Tricks of the Trade"

 This System is the most basic system that a builder can install in order to develop a property. This system is located below ground and is nearly impossible to service and maintain - so it often goes with-out proper maintenance.

This problematic system can be altered in a way to solve its common problems as well as to make the system easy to service and maintain.

Problem #1. The Main Line often becomes clogged due to grease and washing detergent among other substances. Solution: Add a clean out between the home and septic tank.

Problem #2. The System can back-up in to the home or building.
Solution: Add a back-up prevention device called a sewer popper!

The Sewer Popper serves as two solutions in one in that it is both a back-up prevention device and a Main Line clean-out access!




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Problem #3. The Septic Tank baffle tees can become clogged.
Solution: Proper cleaning with a hydro-jetting (hi-pressure) device.

Problem #4. The Anaerobic Bacteria in the Septic Tank can fail to digest the contents and overfill the tank. Solution: Add a bacteria supplement.

Problem #5. The outlet or rear baffle tee can allow solids to enter the field lines once the tank becomes overfilled. Solution: Add a septic filter

Problem #6. The septic tank can be difficult to access for servicing and go un-serviced for long periods until problems become evident. Furthermore, no easy access also means that the landscaping will be disturbed each time digging takes place while servicing. Solution: Add a permanent access such as a man-hole with a Child-Proof Cover.


Problem #7. The Field Lines appear to fail due to excessive Bio-Mat clogging the fields. The Bio-Mat excess can surface above the absorption field as dark, smelly puddles as seen below.




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Copyright  2009, Don Wolf. All Rights Reserved. 
P.O. Box 708 Ellenwood, GA. 30294

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